The main cross-cutting difference between the October 2019 proposals and those of the November 2018 VA is that the previous “backstop” maintained a much more comprehensive and broader set of relations with goods trade between the EU and the UK on a proposed customs territory between the UK and the EU (although this did not prevent other obstacles to economic relations, because it did not cover trade in services. For example, movement of persons/workers, capital movements, transport services, etc.). On 23 January 2020, the UK Parliament approved the draft European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020. Following the signing of the Agreement, the Government of the United Kingdom issued and deposited the instrument of ratification of Great Britain on 29 January 2020. [7] [8] The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union entered into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 p.m GMT, the date on which the Withdrawal Agreement entered into force in accordance with Article 185. The receipt of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from fresh to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. The political declaration is 30 pages long and outlines a longer-term agreement between Britain and the EU.

Negotiations are ongoing and the UK is working to reach an agreement by 15 October 2020. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on 17 October 2019, the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement. [30] EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft Withdrawal Agreement, which enabled the European Council (Article 50) to adopt, on 23 March 2018, guidelines for the framework for the future relationship between the EU and the UK. On 17 October 2019, the United Kingdom and the EU approved a revised agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, approved by Heads of State and Government at an extraordinary European Council, a legally binding document containing provisions on the “divorce agreement” between the EU and the United Kingdom and on the Transition Period. This is accompanied by a revised political declaration setting out the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom. Despite this, the EU and the UK are required to reach a future trade agreement and the transitional period can be extended for another two years (if extended by two years, it would end in December 2022). The revised Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration were discussed and approved at the European Council on 17 October 2019. While the current “backstop” kept the UK in a customs union with the EU, the new WA predicts that the whole of the UK (including Northern Ireland) will leave the EU`s customs union. From a legal point of view, Northern Ireland remains part of the British customs territory. Northern Ireland is included in british free trade agreements….

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